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Hardie Pacific is investing in innovative research into carbon sequestration. New Zealand and Australia’s magnesium rich ultramafic rocks have been proven to chemically react with CO2 to form stable carbonate minerals. Natural hydrogen is also produced during the mineralisation process. Our aim is to become the Southern hemisphere’s major carbon mineralisation hub and a significant natural hydrogen producer.

CO2 Mineralisation

Current projections show that it is likely that the world will surpass the global warming target of 1.5°C due to excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. Reaching these climate targets will require rapid and sustained reduction in emissions, the capture and storage of hard to abate emissions, and the removal of atmospheric CO2 (negative emissions) at large scales.

There are various methods for carbon dioxide storage ranging from natural solutions like tree planting and soil sequestration to engineered approaches such as direct air capture, ocean fertilization, and carbon mineralisation. Each method has distinct CO2 storage capacities and average storage durations before being release back into the atmosphere.

Hardie Pacific is actively working to introduce carbon mineralisation to the southern hemisphere. Our Australian company, Carbozorb, has permit locations in New South Wales, while our Aotearoa New Zealand company, Weora, has permits throughout the country.

We collaborate with researchers from universities and industries that emit CO2 and other harmful gases, such as fluorine. Together, we aim to prevent the release of these gases into the atmosphere and instead store them securely and permanently in mineral form.

Natural Hydrogen

Ultramafic rocks produce natural hydrogen (H2) when metamorphosed in the presence of water, a process called serpentinisation. Although natural hydrogen exploration is still in its infancy, seeps are known to occur around the world, including within Weora and Carbozorb’s licence areas.

It is unlikely that hydrogen will be found in pressurised stagnant reservoirs, as with traditional with methane deposits, instead, natural hydrogen occurs more often as slow flowing accumulations. Hydrogen gas is being continually generated from the serpentisation of the ultramafic rocks and it flows along the natural fractures within the rock mass.  We are investigating the economic potential for natural hydrogen across the licence portfolio’s and whether engineered systems for in situ carbon mineralisation could commercially produce hydrogen.

How it works

Carbon mineralisation is the formation of solid, stable carbonate minerals through the reaction of CO2 with rocks and minerals rich in magnesium, calcium, and iron. CO2 reactive rocks and minerals include ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks, olivine, serpentine, and plagioclase. The CO2 can be used in many forms for mineralisation, either as a gas, liquid, supercritical CO2 or dissolved in water. This process results in carbonate minerals such as magnesite, calcite, dolomite and creates hydrogen gas.

Carbon mineralisation is a naturally occurring geological process and responsible sequestering 150 – 300 Mt of CO2 annually. We plan to engineer the system to accelerate this natural process.

Carbon Mineralisation has the greatest potential storage capacity of all sequestration/storage methods and can theoretically mineralise all CO2 that has been, or ever could be generated.

The biggest advantage of mineral carbonation over other sequestration methods is that the carbon cannot escape back to the atmosphere and can be stored for millions of years – no liability or ongoing monitoring.

The Carbozorb and Weora permit areas in NSW and NZ contain large areas of magnesium and iron rich ultramafic rocks which are well suited for Mineral Carbonation. The dunite rock in the Weora permit areas have the highest magnesium concentration of any ultramafic rocks in the world.


Carbon mineralisation can be accelerated using different methods:

  • In situ mineralisation, where CO2 is dissolved in water and then the mixture is injected through a drill hole into an underground reactive rock formation.
  • Ex situ mineralisation, where rocks are crushed to increase the reactive surface area and then exposed to CO2. This process occurs at surface level and has the potential to produce saleable by-products such as CO2 neutral cement or plasterboard.
  • Enhanced weathering, which involves spreading finely ground rocks or minerals over large areas, such as farmland, where they react with CO2 and water to form stable carbonates.

Weora is evaluating all three methods of Carbon mineralisation across its portfolio of licence and resource areas.

CO2 Sources

Carbon mineralization relies on appropriate rock formations and concentrated sources of CO2. There are two primary methods for capturing CO2, capturing it at the emission source or through direct atmospheric air capture. Carbon mineralisation is well-suited to both approaches. CO2 can be transported to the site where mineralization occurs, enabling flexibility in the implementation of this process.

Weora Limited

Our Aotearoa NZ registered company, Weora, holds 8 Mineral Permit applications throughout NZ totalling 2,311 km2. Weora has concluded an initial drilling programme of 5 hole totalling 2670 meters drilled at the Greenhills location on the South Island. 

Carbozorb Pty Ltd

Our NSW, Australia registered company holds 4 Mineral Exploration Licence applications totalling 2,161 km2. Carbozorb is evaluating the suitability of the permit areas for CO­2 capture either directly at emissions sources or through direct air capture. Both in situ and ex situ CO2 mineralisation options are being considered.